Pupils in England will study maths up until the age of 18 under plans to be unveiled by Rishi Sunak.
In a major speech scheduled for 2pm, the prime minister will say there is a need to "reimagine our approach to numeracy" in his first speech of the year today, adding.
The details of the prime minister's "new mission" will be announced "in due course", Number 10 said, though the government did not "envisage" making maths A-level compulsory.
Labour said it would be "an empty pledge" if they could not recruit more maths teachers.
Around eight million adults in England have the numeracy skills of primary school children, according to government figures, while 60% of disadvantaged pupils do not have basic maths skills at 16.
Rishi Sunak will say his ambitions for numeracy are 'personal' (Sky News)
The prime minister wants pupils to study some form of maths until 18, with the government exploring the right route, including the Core Maths qualifications, T-levels and "more innovative options".
During the speech, Mr Sunak is expected to "acknowledge that reform on this scale won't be easy", meaning the policy will not come into force until the next parliament.
He will say the issue is "personal" for him, because the "single most important reason" he entered politics was "to give every child the highest possible standard of education".
Downing Street said pupils studying maths until 18 would put England on a par with most other OECD countries, including Australia, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Norway and the United States.